How touch screen devices come to know where you are touching?

Today touch screen technology is taking control over almost every gadgets and electronic devices. We can see live examples of touch screen devices at ATMs, mobile phones, tablets, refrigerators, Remote controls, and the list continuous to million others.
So, how does this touch screen devices come to know that where you are touching and how they work accordingly? Let’s have a look on the answer.
Almost every touch screen devices uses one of the following mentioned systems for their working:
1) Resistive Touch
a) This system consists of a glass panel at the basic level.
b)This glass level is covered with
Conductive Layer
Resistive Layer
c) Both these layers are separated by spacers
d) Finally, a scratch-resistant layer is placed above the whole setup.
In this system, electric current flows continuously through both the Conductive and the Resistive Layer, as long as the display is ON.

As soon as user touches any area of the display, both the layers make contact with each other. At this point, change in electrical field is used to determine the exact location coordinates of the point where user has touch.
And once we come to know about the coordinates of touch, we can translate them to something that operating system can understand, using some special drivers. This process is same as using any computer mouse, in which drivers of mouse translates its movements into click or drag.
Resistive touch system working
Working of Resistive Touch Systems
2)     Capacitive System
In capacitive system, a capacitor layer (which can store electric charge) is placed on the monitor’s glass panel.
As soon as the user touches any point over the display, the current charge on the capacitive layer decreases to some extent. Calculating the relative difference in charge at each corner, the computer is able to calculate the exact point where user has touched the screen and this information gets passed over to the touch screen driver software.

Capacitive Touch System
Working of Capacitive Touch System
3) Surface Acoustic Wave System
In this system we place two transducers over the x and y axes of the monitor’s glass plate. One of the transducer is for receiving purpose and other for sending.
Reflectors are placed on the glass which reflects the electrical signal from one transducer to another.
Thus, the following to the reflector’s principal, the receiving transducer can tell if the wave has been disturbed by any touch stimuli or not. If any wave disturbance is found by the receiving transducer, it can locate the exact location accordingly.
Wave Acoustic Touch Screen System
Working of a Wave Acoustic Touch Screen System

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